Thursday, February 20, 2020

Anthropology - Primates Observations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Anthropology - Primates Observations - Essay Example Focusing on the Gibbon at first, I was able to obtain a lot of information on the creature. The animal bears the scientific name Hylobates simang. The observation made on the behavior for this animal was around 20 minutes. One of the characteristics noted about the animal in a clear manner is the high amount of social skills that it bears. This derivation attributes to the way the animal went about its activities and occasionally going over to other hears of its family. The vocalization of the Gibbon appeared to be very high as compared to other animals in the zoo. The animal has a very high vocal ability perceived from a distance that well exceeds one kilometer. Another characteristic observed from the creature is its high flexibility. This is from the manner in which it jumped from tree to tree at ease. These vigorous activities helped in putting the animal in good health. The animals have a very dynamic field of view and thus a high rate of accuracy while swinging. Moreover, their hands have a very large surface area and thus hard for them to miss a rope in their swinging activities. After a round of swings, the animal only rested for around five or less minutes. This was because it was the social responsibility of each of the animals to watch over each other (Stoinski 113). The feeding behavior of the animal was very typical of the primates in the same order. This is from the large amount of bananas that the animals consumed. In the feeding process, the animals were very kind as they shared the meal with the rest of the family members. The animals were very entertaining from the fact that they could occasionally sing for each other. This was from the male and female members of the animals. The singing was some kind of communication between the two sexes. The other animal to study was the Western Lowland Gorilla. Research led me to the understanding that the animal has the scientific name Gorilla gorilla gorilla. With the animal, I was also able to spend 20 minutes in its natural habitat observing its lifestyle and the noticeable features. For a gorilla, the animal was rather small and hence considered the smallest of the Gorilla family. Unlike other primates, the animal did not show any signs of territorial domination. This is from the manner in which other gorillas of the same type could interact freely with those of another family. The animals also generally fear areas that that are enclosed and do not find comfort in those areas. It is due to this that the animals are in the open multiple times. The feeding of the animals generally characterized high-energy foods due to the high amount of social activities witnessed from the animals. Bamboo plants are the favorite food types of these animals. This is because the plants bear lot of proteins that offer the animals a lot of energy to swing from tree to tree and run at a very high speed in an effort to run away from their predators. The animals stay in large groups for protection. This is very important as they have a natural fear of poachers hunting them down. The animals live in groups of around seven females together with their children and one dominant male. The animal spends around 5 hours daytime to sleep. This is after the consumption of a healthy and heavy meal. The male however does not enjoy this kind of comfort. This is because it is his role to take care of the

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 50

Marketing - Essay Example The business policy adopted by the Zip Car is a unique one and the key thing is that they are constantly updating it with the time. Offering low rental, better availability, using high technology to attract people specially the young generation is one the key behind their success over the last 8 years. The company is now the leader of the car rental market in the USA and focusing more to boost their profitability by adopting more advanced business strategies according to the culture and structure and requirement of the society. Zip car is one of the well-known car services in the western world. The process was initiated way back taking into mind the need of the customers in and around the urban areas. In every country people who belong to higher class can afford a number of cars but the number of people in that group is very little. Majority of the people cannot afford a car but in most cases they would love to avail the service. Zip car cash onto this option and started providing car to the customer with nominal price, greater and easy availability, taking environmental pollution under control but provide easy and affordable solution to the people belonging to middle class. The company is now the leading car share company in the world providing rental car to the people and having a customer base of over 700,000 passionate customers. The bottom-line of their offering is Wheels when you want the’. A simple registration process, a comparatively lower rental, variety of choice for different occasion an d different purpose –all these making them the leading player in the car rental service. The business was started 8 years back and profit was increasing every time. The business was started focusing urban life as the need is highest over there. Soon they widen their operation and now they started to focus on environmental policy, tracking more corporate client as well to get more strong hold

Monday, January 27, 2020

Case Study: Liver Disease and Hepatitis B

Case Study: Liver Disease and Hepatitis B Case study   Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Liver Disease Introduction A 60 year old woman with a history of hepatitis B and cirrhosis presents with oedema and constipation. The GP takes the following tests on her and these are the results. Albumin 30g/L Platelet count Alpha – fetoprotein 450 ng/mL Test results The test results can be used for analysis to clarify what disease the 60 year old woman has, and by linking her symptoms with the test results. Hepatitis B is a virus that affects the liver, chronic hepatitis can develop without proper treatment. Having hepatitis B will eventually cause scarring to the liver which is known as cirrhosis. The 60 year old woman has developed Chronic hepatitis, the hepatitis is ongoing and serious, this will eventually cause the liver tissue to produce scares and stop functioning as it should .A liver biopsy (tissue sample) can be taken to find out how serious the hepatitis is. One of the function of the liver is to produce a protein called albumin, having liver cirrhosis will cause permanent damage to the liver and when this happens the liver will find it had to produce albumin.(Aspinall et al 2011:Pubmed) Albumin is a protein that is made by the liver which measures the exact amount of protein in the clear liquid portion in blood. The test is usually t aken place to determine whether a person has a sort of liver or kidney disease which is the main reason why the test was carried out. The normal range in human is between 3.4 – 5.4g/dL. The woman’s albumin level shows that it is below average, low albumin may cause oedema which is a symptom that the woman is experiencing. Cirrhosis results in an increase in fluid retention. Cirrhosis also leads to low levels of albumin and other proteins in the blood which could also be the cause of oedema. (Gupta and Lis, 2010) Platelet count determines the amount of platelet in the blood, normal adults produce 1 x10^11 platelets every day, portal hypertension is a complication of cirrhosis of the liver. Portal hypertension always takes place in the liver at all times, an increase in the pressure within the portal vein is caused by barrier of the blood flow to through the liver (Kotoh et al 2012). Portal hypertension causes symptoms to patients that are linked to their liver disease which could be hepatitis B,C or cirrhosis, patients that have cirrhosis had a very high chance of developing portal hypertension and it was increase over years. Patients who have portal hypertension usually have low platelet count which is the case of the 60 year old woman whose platelet count is Alpha fetoprotein is a protein that is found in the liver, it is considered a tumour marker for liver cancer, the test may be done to diagnose possible liver diseases. The normal values in males or non-pregnant females is generally less than 40 micrograms/litre.High levels of alpha-fetoprotein indicates that there could be liver cancer which is the key factor which shows that there is something wrong with the liver.If your AFP level is unusually high but you are not pregnant, it may indicate the presence of certaincancers or liverconditions.so a liver transplant could be an option for the woman. In adults, high blood levels can be a sign of certain types of cancer, including liver cancer. (Alejandro et al, 2012) Symptoms and Diagnosis Constipation is a liver related issue, in this case It was most likely caused by her progressing tumour formation this may press on her digestive system causing constipation, having cirrhosis may also not allow her to properly digest fatty lipids because her bile might possibly be blocked resulting in constipation.  Hypothyroidism  can cause constipation. Blood tests to check thyroid hormones / TSH will help in diagnosing hypothyroidism. Oedema is swelling that is caused by fluid trapped in the bodies tissues, oedema can be a sign of lots of things including malnourishment and low albumin level in the blood and the woman’s albumin level is below average these are the results of having liver failure and cirrhosis. Having history of cirrhosis is the main reason she has oedema. (Gaw et al 2013) Because of the woman’s age cancer would need to be tested for cancer as old people are much more prone to have cancer. Albumin is produced by the liver meaning that her liver is affected inducting liver cancer. Some patients with chronic liver diseases are more likely to develop thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism through autoimmune mechanisms (Huang, Liaw 2008). The woman may have Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) which is most common and popular type of liver cancer. The main risk factors associated with HCC are hepatitis B,C and cirrhosis which the woman has a history of. HCC develops in patients with chronic liver disease and patients with cirrhosis are more likely to develop HCC and people over the age of 50 are more likely to develop HCC. The most common diseases that affects the liver are cirrhosis and hepatitis (Marshall and Bangert 2008). HCC is a serious disease in which alpha-fetoprotein will be elevated in a person, alpha-fetoprotein is a gene that becomes expressed when lots of damage has occurred to the liver in HCC. The normal range for AFP is 10-20 ng/mL.A level of >400 ng/mL may be regarded as diagnostic for HCC by some. Further tests A test that can be proposed is an ultrasound of the liver, an ultrasound test uses sound waves to create pictures and to see what is going on with organs inside the body. If any tumours are found in the liver then this can be furthered to test for cancer. An MRI scan can be useful for looking at liver cancers, MRI are sometimes good at telling which cancers are a tumour. Another tests that can be carried out is biopsy which involves actually taking the tumour and inspecting it under the microscope for further analysis which is likely to be more effective and reliable. Alanine aminotransferase(ALT)An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the amount of this  enzyme  in the blood. ALT is found mainly in the  liver, ALT is measured to see if the liver is damaged or diseased. Low levels of ALT are normally found in the blood. But when the liver is damaged or diseased, it releases ALT into the bloodstream, which makes ALT levels go up. Most increases in ALT levels are caused b y liver damage. Treatment and Prognosis Some treatment for HCC can include a liver transplant or surgery which can remove small or small-growing tumours.Sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar), which is an oral medication can be taken to block and stops tumour from growing.The prognosis is often poor, because only 10 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas can be removed completely using surgery. Radio frequency ablation can be used to kill cancerous cells. If the cancer cannot successfully be removed or killed, the disease is usually deadly within 3 6 months. However, this is not always the case as everybody is difference and so on some occasions people will survive much longer than 6 months. (Forner at al 2012: Pubmed) References Alejandro Forner, Josep M Llovet, Dr Jordi Bruix. (2012). The Lancet.  Hepatology. 379 (9822), P1245–1255. Allan Gaw, Michael J. Murphy, Rajeev Srivastava, Robert A. Cowan, Denis St. J. OReilly. (2013).  Clinical Biochemistry. 5th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone. p197-202. Aspinall EJ, Hawkins G, Fraser A, Hutchinson SJ, Goldberg D.. (2011). Pubmed:  Occupational Medicine. 8 (2), p531-540. Digant Gupta and Christopher G Lis. (2010). Nutrition Journal. Pubmed:  Pretreatment serum albumin as a predictor of cancer survival: A systematic review of the epidemiological literature. 9 (69), p112-120. Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, Pratt DS (2010).  Liver chemistry and function tests. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevie. p436-450. Kazuhiro Kotoh, Marie Fukushima, Yuki Horikawa, Shinsaku Yamashita, Motoyuki Kohjima, Makoto Nakamuta, Munechika EnjojiJanuary. (2012). Experimental and theurapitcal mediine.  Serum albumin is present at higher levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis as compared to HCV-related cirrhosis. 3 (1), p166-170. Miau-Ju Huang and Yun-Fan Liaw. (2008). Wiley Online Library.  Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 10 (3), P237–364. William J Marshall, Stephen K Bangert (2008).  Clinical chemistry. 6th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier. p40-50.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

JoAnn Marshall - The Roles of Southern Women, Black and White, in Society :: Essays Papers

JoAnn Marshall - The Roles of Southern Women, Black and White, in Society Lillian Smith provides a description of the typical black woman and the typical white woman "of the pre-1960's American South" (Gladney 1) in her autobiographical critique of southern culture, Killers of the Dream. The typical black woman in the South is a cook, housekeeper, nursemaid, or all three wrapped up in one for at least one white family. Therefore, she is the double matriarch of the South, raising her own family and the families of her white employers: "It was not a rare sight in my generation to see a black woman with a dark baby at one breast and a white one at the other, rocking them both in her wide lap" (Smith 130). The southern black woman's duties extend far beyond rearing children, as she also serves as a family counselor, confidant, and nurse for the entire white family (Smith 129) and her own if time permits. She can do all this and more because she is strong, wise, and insightful in all areas of life (Smith 119). In short, the southern black woman is the cornersto ne of the southern, domestic life. The white woman in the South has an equally important role. The southern white woman is responsible for maintaining southern social order, better known as Southern Tradition. She establishes "the 'do' and the 'don't' of behavior" (Smith 132) in her children and believes, "If you could just keep from them all the things that must never be mentioned, all would be well!" (Smith 142). At the same time, the southern white woman sits atop the pedestal of Sacred Womanhood that her husband and his ancestors built for her (Smith 141). She meekly sits there, a symbol of southern society used to benefit men's ideals, feeling empty and powerless against everything going on around her (Smith 141-2). The whispers in her children's ears and her presence on that pedestal fulfill the white woman's role as protectress of Southern Tradition, but does not fulfill the southern white woman. In fact, the roles of the southern black woman and the southern white woman are equally important and equally oppressive: "In a culture where marriage and motherhood were women's primary roles, neither black nor white women were free to be fully wives or mothers, and neither were able to sh ield their children from the physical and psychic destruction of the racist society in which they lived" (Gladney 6).

Saturday, January 11, 2020

The Development and Sustainability of Group Cohesion

It is important to realize that in all aspects of life, especially the workplace, a person needs to encompass the dualities of professionalism and emotionalism in order to be a successful leader and promote group cohesiveness. Due to the relative traditionalism associated with the application of professionalism, this essay will deal mostly with the recent addition of emotionalism as an important factor in determining the type of leadership style necessary in developing group cohesiveness. Emotions are an essential and unavoidable element of organizational life. Despite the fact that members in organizations experience emotions in many different forms, researchers have often failed to study the effects of emotion in the workplace. This new development in organizational behavior suggests that these types of considerations should be discussed and investigated further when evaluating different approaches to the development of group cohesiveness. Developing a strategy for the development of group cohesiveness is dependent upon many different factors. Group dynamics are influenced by distinctiveness from the organization as a whole, and also in the composition and development of the particular group structure involved. Once isolated, this group structure may present other barriers to the development of effective group cohesiveness such as intra- and inter-group conflicts that arise from the particular merit system established within the group. For example, if group members are â€Å"not evaluated on a per/team basis,† members may develop unhealthy competitiveness within the individual group itself (Briggins 81). One inherent paradox within most group structures is the need for trust to exist before trust can develop. This adds difficulty to establishing group cohesiveness within any group, no matter the form. An example of a loss in group cohesiveness from external group conflicts may arise when there is a lack of distinction between the evaluation of each particular group, with the result of tension being established. Tensions are often fuelled by affective or expressive concerns that have little to do with instrumental or task-focused concerns, and minor disagreements can therefore, quickly escalate into major conflicts with group members polarized into different rival camps. Due to the many potential problems of group dynamics, the considerations involved in developing group cohesiveness take on a different appearance than traditional management decision-making processes. Some of the key considerations one must investigate when discussing the phenomenon of group cohesiveness deal exclusively with the recognition of the different aspects of emotionalism. Many times researchers assume that emotionality and rationality are antithetical, and thus, in the rationally based world of modern management, CEO†s ignore emotional concerns when establishing group standards and leadership. Due to this type of belief, when evaluating group cohesiveness, no normalization or recommendation has generally been given to group leaders in the evaluation of and interaction with the emotions of the group members (Carr 48). In actuality, emotionality and rationality have been found to be interpenetrated and interdependent, because emotions, as well as rational thought (one would hope), are involved in every group decision making process. The concept of â€Å"cohesiveness† itself is defined as â€Å"the attractiveness of a group to its members, highlighting the affective bond between individuals†(Pettit 13). Thus in order for management to develop a consistent policy for the development of group cohesiveness, emotionality must be considered as well as the aforementioned possible difficulties which may arise out of the different forms of groups and the group dynamics associated with each form. There are many possible costs and benefits involved in the development and support of group cohesiveness within any organization. One important consideration that may lead to both benefits and downfalls in the development of group cohesiveness is emotional contagion. Emotional contagion is the tendency for a member of a group to mimic another group member†s emotional experience/expression and thus to experience/express the same emotions his or herself. Emotional contagion underlies such phrases as â€Å"team spirit† and â€Å"electricity in the air†, and it is the same reason why teammates tend to cheer and clap during sporting events in order to â€Å"root teammates on† (Frisch 16). Emotional contagion can be a very constructive or destructive force in organizations. On the positive side, contagion may increase empathy and solidarity, creating a cohesive group. This contagion can be mobilized in the pursuit of organizational goals. It has even been supposed that the interaction and sharing of emotions promote group cohesiveness to the extent that they develop a kind of â€Å"group mind†. On the negative side, though, contagion can also impair performance. It may cause negative emotions such as fear and anxiety to quickly pervade the entire group, and in turn the entire organization. This often results in infighting and factionalism. There are many factors essential to the CEO in the development and sustainability of group cohesiveness. One must evaluate the different dynamical group constructs in order to prevent intra- and inter-group conflicts. It is also essential for any leader of any organization to recognize the emergence of emotionalism as a major factor in the evaluation and implementation of any plan for group cohesiveness. The final and perhaps most important consideration the CEO must undertake, is the evaluation of the impact of emotional contagion and what means may be implemented to help develop effectively transformational leadership processes for the groups in the organization. All of these considerations should help the CEO to establish and sustain group cohesiveness within the entire organization.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Personal Leadership Style Of My Career Essay - 896 Words

1. Throughout my career, I have had the opportunity to work for several leaders who in one way or another influenced and molded my personal leadership style. Although not all of them are revered as positive influences, each one of them provided me with the building blocks to develop myself as a leader and find my place within the organization. 2. Remembering a Boatswains Mate Master Chief at my first unit. He taught me to be fair but firm. I can practically hear him right now saying â€Å"Don’t take it personal, keep it professional and always do the right thing†. That phrase, as simple as it might sound guided my early stages of development into the leader I am today. After the BMCM, some time passed before I came across a young Lieutenant Commander who is now a Rear Admiral. An extremely intelligent man who taught me to pursue a higher education and never stop improving myself professionally, as a person, leader and parent. He was often absent from the office tending to other affairs, but his presence was felt throughout. He told us to find the one thing we liked to do and master it. 3. Years passed without much of a leader role model. Although I worked for some, they did not influence me in any way. The next influential leader in my career came in the form of a Warrant Officer who had a completely different approach to leadership from my two previous influences. For him, it was his way or the highway. He did not value input from the Chiefs nor the crew. He did not concernShow MoreRelatedPersonal Leadership Statement: Becoming an Educational Leader983 Words   |  4 Pages85). My vocational life story has developed over the past forty years with my first job at twelve babysitting six children to where I stand today teaching home economics at Chowchilla high school. â€Å"I build my own life story through the decisions of projects I undertake† and the choices I have made regarding my career path (Contino, 2004, p. 85). Someone looking from the outside at my wandering path might believe of my career changes seem a bit radical. Moving bicoastal, leaving a s table career ofRead MoreHow I Formed My Leadership Philosophy1067 Words   |  5 PagesSubj: PESONAL LEADERSHIP PHILOSOPHY 1. How I formed my leadership philosophy: throughout my career I have worked for many different styles of leaders who all had a different style of leadership. They also had individual ways to deliver their message; these leaders are what helped me create my personal leadership philosophy and style. 2. Situational leadership, it’s the term I use to describe the style of leadership I have developed over my career. To me this means that each individual is motivatedRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Business Administration ( Mba ) Program Essay1747 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Capturing the essence of this individual paper, my Personal Mastery and my Personal Leadership will be used to evaluate my current career position and describe my progress throughout the Masters of Business Administration (MBA) program. Reflecting on previous classes, the Personal Mastery will be used to formulate my personality style taken from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI outlined eight characteristics, which include: Extraversion/Introversion, Sensing Perception/IntuitingRead MoreMy Personal Leadership Administration ( Mba ) Program Essay1739 Words   |  7 PagesCapturing the essence of this individual paper, my Personal Mastery and my Personal Leadership will be used to evaluate my current career position and describe my progress throughout the Masters of Business Administration (MBA) program. Reflecting on previous classes, the Personal Mastery will be used to formulate my personality style taken from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI outlin ed eight characteristics, which include: Extraversion/Introversion, Sensing Perception/Intuiting PerceptionRead MoreReflection Paper On Leadership1345 Words   |  6 PagesReflection Essay 1 In class, so far, we have discussed many different topics about leadership. One being different leadership theories. The one that I feel most represents the leader I want to be in the future is servant leadership. When we discussed servant leadership it was defined as this leadership model is based on the leader and the followers wanting to serve others. Basically, this means the servant leader you put your focus on the needs of others before your own. The followers goalRead MoreMy Achievements in Dynamic Leadership811 Words   |  3 PagesExecutive Summary: This assignment sets out my achievements from the course â€Å"Dynamic Leadership†. The course we studied combines interactive online learning and self- study of different articles, theories, and leadership-followership relationships. For the past eight weeks of study and beyond, we have been developing a wide range of skills to become an effective leader. These skills includes, understanding one’s self, the ability to motivate others and understand organizational cultureRead MoreThe Servant By James C. Hunter1650 Words   |  7 PagesServant Leadership is a specific leadership style that focuses on the servant, rather than the leader. In this paper, I will discuss how Servant Leadership can be applied to the nursing practice. This will be explored through definitions, history, and major concepts. I will also integrate Servant Leadership’s function into the nursing practice. Lastly, I will examine my own personal growth on the application of leadership in nursing. In the book The Servant, the author James C. Hunter discussesRead MoreA Leader At A Senior Leader1162 Words   |  5 PagesWhen I filled out the diagnostic score sheet for a senior leader I know, I was not surprised by the results. This leader is nearing the end of her career and I have often heard her joke that she just doesn’t have â€Å"any adrenaline left† and this is reflected in her leadership style. The total score I gave this leader was 12 with 4.5 for Noble Purpose, 3 for Ceaseless Ambition, 3.5 for Candor and 1 for Passion. The area where I feel this leader excels is Noble Purpose. I have never been in a meetingRead MoreThe Achiever1348 Words   |  6 Pagesdocument subtitle] | | Excelsior College | BUS 452 - Business Leadership | | After reading the article â€Å"7 Transformations of Leadership† by David Rooke and William R. Torbert in 2005 Harvard Business Review, I immediately discovered what type of action logic I currently possess as a leader. Although there were many action logics to look at in the article, such as the Opportunist, who has the tendency to focus on personal wins and justify their behavior as legitimate in a cut throat world;Read MoreCareer Plan For A Career Development1706 Words   |  7 Pagessuccessful career before planning on extending their vocation into a formal leadership role in their organization. Hansen and Tovar (2013) suggested that career development, and subsequently becoming a good leader, is a lifelong process that requires the motivation to continue to grow by taking a methodical approach into their daily study and work habits. Fortunately some modern academic institutions are projecting into the future in mandating their student’s curriculum to include career planning

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Bipolar Disorder - National Institute of Mental Health - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1489 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/08/06 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Bipolar Disorder Essay Did you like this example? According to the National Institute of Health approximately 5.7 million adults in America are diagnosed with some form of Bipolar disorder every year, making up 2.6% of the population. At least 25% of patients diagnosed with Bipolar disorder will attempt to or will commit suicide in their lifetime (NIH, Jamison,2017). Bipolar disorder is a mental health illness that is classified by mood swings from deep depression to mania or hypomania. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Bipolar Disorder National Institute of Mental Health" essay for you Create order There are three main types of Bipolar disorder, all classified by how often the cycling of moods is experienced as well as the type of mania or depression experienced by the patient. Many patients who suffer from Bipolar also suffer from other mental health conditions such as anxiety or post traumatic stress disorder (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Because this disorder manifests itself in many ways it can be hard to identify and diagnose, often being confused with depression or in some cases schizophrenia. It has been found that a patients family may exacerbate or trigger manic or depressive episodes, but family therapy and intervention can help stabilize the person with Bipolar (Miklowitz,2007). Studies show that diagnosing children with Bipolar disorder can be difficult because it can be confused with symptoms of other mental illnesses or trauma, but if untreated the consequences can be extremely severe and even deadly (Sutton,2013). Bipolar disorder occurs equally in men and women, and equa lly across all races and religions, but the type of bipolar disorder tends to vary among genders. People with relatives who have Bipolar are also much more likely to have the disorder themselves, with the likelihood increasing with the amount of relatives. Although Bipolar disorder can be difficult to pinpoint, once it has been diagnosed the patient has many treatment steps they can take, including individual and family therapy and medication. The typical onset age of Bipolar disorder is 25 (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017), but it can present itself at any age, although it may be harder to diagnose and may be confused with other mental health illnesses. Bipolar disorder can only be diagnosed by a mental health professional and the type of Bipolar that is diagnosed is qualified by multiple criteria, such as the frequency of mood cycling, or whether the patient experiences mania or hypomania. Mania and hypomania are different in that mania can be more destructive and severe, and mania can also trigger a psychotic break, while hypomania tends to be less severe and cause less damage in the persons personal life and relationships (Mayo Clinic,2018). Some symptoms of mania and hypomania include: Racing thoughts, a lack of need for sleep, false sense of self-confidence, and impulsive or risky financial or sexual behaviors. Some symptoms of a major depressive episode include: Fatigue or energy loss, significant gain in sleep or insomnia, lack of enjoyment in activities that the patient used to enjoy, and feelings of immense sadness, hopelessness or lack of motivation (Mayo Clinic,2018). Bipolar I disorder is classified by one manic episode that is preceded by or followed by depressive or hypomanic episodes. Bipolar II is classified by one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode, but does not necessarily include mania. A diagnosis for Cyclothymic disorder requires two years containing many hypomanic and depressive episodes (Mayo Clinic,2018). Bipolar disorder is currently the sixth leading cause of disability in the world (NIH,2017) and it occurs equally across all socio-economic platforms, religions, and places in the world. Men and women are equally susceptible to bipolar disorder, but women are three times more likely to experience Bipolar in a rapid cycling form (NIH,2017). Women are also much more likely to experience the disorder with mainly depressive episodes than men. A major problem when it comes to diagnosing children with Bipolar disorder (although it affects approximately 750,000 children a year (Sutton,2013)), is that it doesnt seem to follow typical mood cycling patterns typically found in the disorder, because mania and depression tend to manifest differently in younger people. According to the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance as many as 80% of children with Bipolar disorder are undiagnosed for up to ten years before receiving appropriate treatment. This difficulty in diagnosing stems from the fact that at such a young age, the childs behaviors may be confused for ADHD, Depressive disorders, or may be attributed to typical experiences of puberty. Having so many undiagnosed adolescents and children is dangerous and often causes problems in the patients life. Children with undiagnosed Bipolar are at an increased risk of experiencing difficulty in academics, and are higher risk of having learning disabilities. Adolescents with undiagnosed Bipolar disorder are also 40-50% more likely to experience alcohol or drug abuse (Sutton,2013). They also tend to experience a much greater difficulty maintaining healthy friendships and relationships, even with family members. Although as of right now there is no definitive cause of Bipolar disorder, multiple factors have been found to exacerbate it, or make it more likely. Currently it is believed that the disorder is partially caused by the malfunction of three brain chemicals: Serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline (Psych central, 2018). Bipolar has also been found to be a hereditary disease, with the likelihood increasing if one or both parents have the disorder. If one parent has Bipolar disorder the likelihood of the child having it spikes by 15%, and if both parents have it, the likelihood of the child developing the disorder is 40% greater (Mayo Clinic,2018). Environmental factors can als affect when the disorder begins to manifest itself outwardly. Traumatic events may trigger a depressive episode, and alcohol or drug use may trigger manic episodes or even psychotic breaks. Family has also been shown to greatly affect the cycling of moods in a person with Bipolar Disorder. Research has implicated the role of psycho-social stressors, including high expressed emotion attitudes among family members, in the relapse- remission course of the disorder (Miklowitz,2007). In families where high expressed emotion attitudes are common, such as intense criticism, hostility, and/or emotional overinvolvement negative interactions tend to occur more often and may trigger Irritability in the person with Bipolar disorder, and may be linked to causing manic or hypomanic episodes, which in turn causes more high expressed-emotion interactions from the parent or family member (Miklowitz,2007). Family focused treatment has been shown to help resolve these high emotion-expressed situations, and also teaches parents and family of the person with Bipolar disorder how to recognize symptoms of an episode and how to act in ways that wont further trigger them. Some components of fam ily focused treatment include psychoeducation, communication enhancement treatment, and problem-solving skills training. Even though theres currently no cure for Bipolar, there are many treatments that can help maintain stability in someone with the disorder. Many people choose with Bipolar choose medications to stabilize their moods. Many psychiatrists recommend anti- convulsants (anti-seizure) medications such as Lithium or Topiramate, while others recommend anti- psychotics like Risperidone or Ziprasidone. Some choose to also undergo therapy that also acts as education about their disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, and family therapy have all been shown to aid stabilization. Educating oneself about Bipolar disorder can also help stabilization because it teaches the patient how to recognize symptoms of mania or depression. Summary Bipolar disorder affects 2.6% of the American population, and is the sixth leading cause of disability in the world. It affects men, women, and all races and classes of people indiscriminately, as well as children. Bipolar disorder is often harder to diagnose in children, and can cause many problems for them in adolescence. There is no definitive cause of Bipolar disorder, but there are multiple factors that are suspected to be responsible; including hereditary genetics, neurotransmission failure and environmental factors including the family of the person with Bipolar disorder. Manic and depressive episodes can be triggered by high expressed-emotion families, but this can be counteracted through family therapy. There is no current cure for Bipolar, but through consistent therapy and the proper medication, people with the disorder can live relatively stable lives. Discussion I chose the topic of Bipolar disorder because not only do I find it to be interesting, I was diagnosed with mixed state Bipolar disorder six years ago. I always enjoying having reasons to educate myself on issues that affect my life on a day to day basis. The topic I chose was one of the options given, but It also relates to the course specifically because it is mentioned in chapter 15 under the unit about psychological disorders. Much of the information in this paper I was already aware considering I live with the disorder every day, but something interesting I learned about was high expressive-emotion families and how that can trigger mania. That was something I took note of because that cycle of criticism and interference from my parents leading to irritation on my part was something I could relate to. I think that family focused treatment could help me and my family understand my disorder better, so I will definitely keep that information with me moving forward.